A phrase has lately kept ringing in my head, “Starve the Beast, starve the beast.” So I went to see what I could find and looked, and remembered. There are some of us who would forego necessary infrastructure repairs and investment in education to to force the rest of us into a type of penury that will surely result in the lessening of our ability to compete in the world of tomorrow.
Democracy for Plato and Aristotle was a phase of the cycle of alternate types of government consisting of tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy. Of course there are ideal models but we know seen that the road to hell is paved with good intentions so the ideal, over time, degenerates into the actual.
Aristotle imagines that there are correct forms of government but the kicker is that they require a special type of person. They all claim to be: selfless, uninterested in reward, and dedicated. It could be a king (some like kings), a group of idealistic, knowledgeable specialists that have it in their power to work on behalf of the commonweal, and then there is democracy where the people rule. Aristotle notes that monarchs degenerate into tyrants, aristocrats become oligarchs, and the polis degenerates into an easily led democracy. This was considered the worst and I give as an example the government of Athens after the death of Pericles.
Pericles promoted the arts and literature; this was a chief reason Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural centre of the ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that built most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis.
He first proposed a decree that permitted the poor to watch theatrical plays without paying, with the state covering the cost of their admission. This and other populist programs are why his reign is called “The Golden Age of Pericles.” He would seek to bring the poor into the milleau of wealthier Athenians thereby raising their level of knowledge and culture.
Pericles died in the fall of 429, two and a half years after the Peloponnesian War began and it was the end of the golden age. After Pericles able tenure the political infrastructure of Athens was destroyed by powerful people buying votes and promising the unreasonable. In this atmosphere by 404 bce Athens had been brought to her knees by Sparta and never to regain her stature.
Today we have the people “starving the beast” of state by cutting taxes and waging unfunded wars. Perhaps democracy is the worst form of government. – carlos
Paul Krugman / Starve the beast: Fiscal calamity is the GOP’s plan to shrink government
Tuesday, February 23, 2010
OK, the beast is starving. Now what? That’s the question confronting Republicans. But they’re refusing to answer, or even to engage in any serious discussion about what to do.
For readers who don’t know what I’m talking about: Ever since Ronald Reagan, the GOP has been run by people who want a much smaller government. In the famous words of the activist Grover Norquist, conservatives want to get the government “down to the size where we can drown it in the bathtub.”
But there has always been a political problem with this agenda. Voters may say that they oppose big government, but the programs that actually dominate federal spending — Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security — are very popular. So how can the public be persuaded to accept large spending cuts?
The conservative answer, which evolved in the late 1970s, would be dubbed “starving the beast” during the Reagan years. The idea — propounded by many members of the conservative intelligentsia, from Alan Greenspan to Irving Kristol — was basically that sympathetic politicians should engage in a game of bait-and-switch. Rather than proposing unpopular spending cuts, Republicans would push through popular tax cuts, with the deliberate intention of worsening the government’s fiscal position. Spending cuts could then be sold as a necessity rather than a choice, the only way to eliminate an unsustainable budget deficit.
And the deficit came. True, more than half of this year’s budget deficit is the result of the Great Recession, which has both depressed revenues and required a temporary surge in spending to contain the damage. But even when the crisis is over, the budget will remain deeply in the red, largely as a result of George W. Bush-era tax cuts and unfunded wars. In addition, the combination of an aging population and rising medical costs will, unless something is done, lead to explosive debt growth after 2020.
So the beast is starving, as planned. It should be time, then, for conservatives to explain which parts of the beast they want to cut. And President Barack Obama has, in effect, invited them to do just that, by calling for a bipartisan deficit commission.
Many progressives were deeply worried by this proposal, fearing that it would turn into a kind of Trojan horse — in particular, that the commission would end up reviving the long-standing Republican goal of gutting Social Security. But they needn’t have worried: Senate Republicans overwhelmingly voted against legislation that would have created a commission with actual power, and it is unlikely that anything meaningful will come from the much weaker commission Mr. Obama established by executive order.
Why are Republicans reluctant to sit down and talk? Because they would then be forced to put up or shut up. Since they’re adamantly opposed to reducing the deficit with tax increases, they would have to explain what spending they want to cut. And guess what? After three decades of preparing the ground for this moment, they’re still not willing to do that.
In fact, conservatives have backed away from spending cuts they themselves proposed in the past. In the 1990s, for example, Republicans in Congress tried to force through sharp cuts in Medicare. But now they have made opposition to any effort to spend Medicare funds more wisely the core of their campaign against health care reform (death panels!). And presidential hopefuls say things like this, from Gov. Tim Pawlenty of Minnesota: “I don’t think anybody’s gonna go back now and say, ‘Let’s abolish, or reduce, Medicare and Medicaid.’ ”
What about Social Security? Five years ago the Bush administration proposed limiting future payments to upper- and middle-income workers, in effect means-testing retirement benefits. But in December, The Wall Street Journal’s editorial page denounced any such means-testing, because “middle- and upper-middle-class (i.e., GOP) voters would get less than they were promised in return for a lifetime of payroll taxes.” (Hmm. Since when do conservatives openly admit that the GOP is the party of the affluent?)
At this point, then, Republicans insist that the deficit must be eliminated but they’re not willing either to raise taxes or to support cuts in any major government programs. And they’re not willing to participate in serious bipartisan discussions, either, because that might force them to explain their plan — and there isn’t any plan, except to regain power.
But there is a kind of logic to the current Republican position: In effect, the party is doubling down on starve-the-beast. Depriving the government of revenue, it turns out, wasn’t enough to push politicians into dismantling the welfare state. So now the de facto strategy is to oppose any responsible action until we are in the midst of a fiscal catastrophe. You read it here first.
Paul Krugman is a columnist for The New York Times.