When I was in younger the cool thing to have was an IMSAI 8080 (http://www.imsai.net/). It has lots of lights and a row of paddle switches to set the boot address. What a marvel!
We were all hackers back then because there was no Microsoft. Digital Research had C/PM, which became DOS. I couldn’t afford one but found an Exidy Sorcerer, which served my purposes even though I lusted over IMSAI’s front panel. This was strong competition for the cream colored Lincoln Premier with “skirts” that I knew I would have a slim chance of owning.
There had been other computers since the time of Babbage and Ada Augusta Byron, but this was the beginning for me. The vistas of power surged in my imagination. Being a computer hobbyist was tough back then. First, hard drives of the era were 5 and 10 MB as opposed to the one I have now (350 GB) and they were expensive. I used an analog tape recorder that was difficult to operate. To get to the outside world there was the RS-232 wired connection or the Bell 103 telephone modem running at 300 bps: it was like watching paint dry. In 1996 the 56 kbps modem was invented but for practical purposes that was the limit. My current cable connection is about 9.5 Mb/s.
The internet arguably began in the 1950’s but didn’t come into its own until the 1990s (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet). The internet has become (also arguably) the most important invention of the 20th century. It promised interruptibility of connections to every computer on the planet – a community of the world’s people.
To a large extent it has succeeded. The ideal is always an abstraction whose “telos” is approximated in its implementation. But the main idea was that it belonged to no one. Anyone could get on and say anything. Now this universality is coming under threat.
Some people want to impede this access by throttling (slowing down) the internet for those who do not pay a premium. Some people would like to privatize parts of the internet by means of proprietary software. This means that some things would not “interoperate.” This will be the end of the world community. – carlos
Long Live the Web: A Call for Continued Open Standards and Neutrality
- Technical standards that are open and royalty-free allow people to create applications without anyone’s permission or having to pay. Patents, and Web services that do not use the common URIs for addresses, limit innovation.
- Threats to the Internet, such as companies or governments that interfere with or snoop on Internet traffic, compromise basic human network rights.
- Web applications, linked data and other future Web technologies will flourish only if we protect the medium’s basic principles.
The world wide web went live, on my physical desktop in Geneva, Switzerland, in December 1990. It consisted of one Web site and one browser, which happened to be on the same computer. The simple setup demonstrated a profound concept: that any person could share information with anyone else, anywhere. In this spirit, the Web spread quickly from the grassroots up. Today, at its 20th anniversary, the Web is thoroughly integrated into our daily lives. We take it for granted, expecting it to “be there” at any instant, like electricity.
The Web evolved into a powerful, ubiquitous tool because it was built on egalitarian principles and because thousands of individuals, universities and companies have worked, both independently and together as part of the World Wide Web Consortium, to expand its capabilities based on those principles.
The Web as we know it, however, is being threatened in different ways. Some of its most successful inhabitants have begun to chip away at its principles. Large social-networking sites are walling off information posted by their users from the rest of the Web. Wireless Internet providers are being tempted to slow traffic to sites with which they have not made deals. Governments—totalitarian and democratic alike—are monitoring people’s online habits, endangering important human rights.
If we, the Web’s users, allow these and other trends to proceed unchecked, the Web could be broken into fragmented islands. We could lose the freedom to connect with whichever Web sites we want. The ill effects could extend to smartphones and pads, which are also portals to the extensive information that the Web provides.
Why should you care? Because the Web is yours. It is a public resource on which you, your business, your community and your government depend. The Web is also vital to democracy, a communications channel that makes possible a continuous worldwide conversation.
The Web is now more critical to free speech than any other medium. It brings principles established in the U.S. Constitution, the British Magna Carta and other important documents into the network age: freedom from being snooped on, filtered, censored and disconnected.
Yet people seem to think the Web is some sort of piece of nature, and if it starts to wither, well, that’s just one of those unfortunate things we can’t help. Not so. We create the Web, by designing computer protocols and software; this process is completely under our control. We choose what properties we want it to have and not have. It is by no means finished (and it’s certainly not dead).
If we want to track what government is doing, see what companies are doing, understand the true state of the planet, find a cure for Alzheimer’s disease, not to mention easily share our photos with our friends, we the public, the scientific community and the press must make sure the Web’s principles remain intact—not just to preserve what we have gained but to benefit from the great advances that are still to come.
Universality Is the Foundation
Several principles are key to assuring that the Web becomes ever more valuable. The primary design principle underlying the Web’s usefulness and growth is universality. When you make a link, you can link to anything. That means people must be able to put anything on the Web, no matter what computer they have, software they use or human language they speak and regardless of whether they have a wired or wireless Internet connection. The Web should be usable by people with disabilities. It must work with any form of information, be it a document or a point of data, and information of any quality—from a silly tweet to a scholarly paper. And it should be accessible from any kind of hardware that can connect to the Internet: stationary or mobile, small screen or large. More at SciAm…